Ordered a new 3D printer

I’ve been using my XYZ da Vinci Junior 1.0w 3D printer for a year now. It is still working. However I have learned a lot during that year, I’m printing more complicated models now, and I’m reaching the limits of what the machine can do. I still think it is a great printer for a beginner, but now I want something much better. So I ordered a Zortrax M200 Plus. The “Plus” is important, as this is the brand-new and improved model of the M200, which is highly regarded but now 5 years old.

The first difference between the two printers is the price. The da Vinci Junior was 471€, the Zortrax M200 Plus is 2,369€. Obviously not the same league. The da Vinci Junior uses PLA, the Zortrax can use PLA, ABS, and some other materials. The old M200 was really best used with ABS, but the new Plus version has better cooling fans, so PLA should come out fine now as well. The main difference is that the XYZ printer was only able to use proprietary XYZ filaments, while the new Zortrax also works with filaments from other suppliers. That was a major point of annoyance for the old printer for me; the spools came with an RFID chip, and if the chip said your spool was empty, the printer refused to use the spool. As the chip counted loading, unloading, and failed prints as lost material even if there was no actual material lost, I always ended up having to throw away the last meters of the spool. And the material was far more expensive than it should have been. However at the start I’ll use Zortrax ABS, just because the software knows the best settings for that material.

Where the difference between the two printers is likely to be biggest is in the quality of the prints. At the shop where I ordered the printer they had sample prints of little miniatures similar to those I often make, and the quality was *much* better. On the best setting you don’t even see the layers any more with the Zortrax M200 Plus. Of course it remains to be seen how good it will work with my prints. But the experimenting and fiddling around is all part of the hobby, the resulting miniatures are more of a secondary benefit. 🙂

From what I see in reviews the main issue with the Zortrax is that the software is very slow. I saw a YouTube video of a guy using the old Zortrax M200 to print a Harry Potter wand, and the software took 25 minutes to slice that model. That has probably to do with the print being with rafts (mandatory with the Zortrax) and supports. I suspect the supports use a lot of slicing time, I’ll have to try with and without it. But from the video it appears that the supports are easy to remove, which could be a plus. Now I finally understand the models of Miguel Zavala: Many of them can’t be printed without those automatically generated supports, and the supports generated by the XYZ software are very bad. So up to now I had to fiddle around with the models a lot, disassemble them digitally, reassemble them digitally, and generate functional supports with Meshmixer. I might be able to just hit a print button in the future, which will be faster even if the slicing is slow.

I’ll let you know how the new printer works out once it is delivered and installed.

Is Kratom Safe Enough for the Fight Against Opioids?

A new study says “yes,” and finds it relieves anxiety and reduces negative moods, too.

A review of 57 years of international scientific evidence may help change the perception of kratom and restore its potential as a public health tool that deserves more research.

As the nation grapples for solutions to the opioid epidemic—now claiming more than 33,000 American lives each year—the potential of the psychoactive plant kratom to become a useful tool in the battle has been the subject of hot debate.

While some in the medical field and many in the general public attest to kratom’s ability to help curb opioid addiction and relieve pain, governmental agencies continue to warn against its dangers to mental health, citing links to psychosis and addiction. In 2016, the DEA briefly recommended criminalizing kratom possession and distribution, before withdrawing the proposal.

The study not only points to the potential benefits of kratom as a safer substitute for opioids, but also suggests the plant’s potential to reduce negative mood and relieve anxiety. Published online this week in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence, it represents the largest systematic review of the scientific literature on kratom use and mental health.

“There is a lot of confusing information about kratom in the media that makes it difficult for clinicians and the public to make informed choices,” says lead author Marc T. Swogger, associate professor in the University of Rochester Medical Center’s psychiatry department. “This study clarifies that there is no good scientific basis for claims that kratom causes psychosis, suicide, or violence, and the available data do not indicate that kratom is a significant public health problem.”

Coauthor Zach Walsh, associate professor of psychology at the University of British Columbia notes that current approaches to addressing the opioid epidemic are leaving large numbers of high-need individuals without effective treatment.

“We need to explore all options, and our findings suggest it’s time to carefully examine the potential of this ancient plant,” says Walsh.

3 harmful myths about the opioid epidemic

Swogger and Walsh reviewed the combined results of 13 studies conducted between January 1960 and July 2017, using data from 28,745 individuals.

“There is a clear need for more rigorous, well-controlled, prospective studies to support a sophisticated, nuanced understanding of the plant,” says Swogger. “But data across cultures indicated that kratom has a legitimate role to play in mitigating harms associated with opioid dependence. The bulk of the available research supports kratom’s benefits as a milder, less addictive, and less-dangerous substance than opioids, and one that appears far less likely to cause fatal overdose.”

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa; also known as krathom or ketum) is part of the coffee family and has been used medicinally for centuries in Southeast Asia to relieve symptoms of opioid withdrawal, to relieve pain, diarrhea, and cough, and increase stamina and energy. People chew raw leaves of the kratom plant, boil them to serve as tea, smoke, or vaporize them.

How 30 opioid pills for surgery turn into a habit

In recent years, kratom’s use has expanded beyond Asia, and its leaves, powders, gums, capsules, and extracts are widely accessed through retail outlets and the internet in North America and Europe.

“We need more and better research to be able to outline the risks and benefits of kratom in greater detail,” Swogger says. “Only through well-controlled studies can we elucidate kratom’s potential for good and harm, and give the public, policy makers, and health care professionals the information needed to make informed decisions.”

Source: University of Rochester

Original Study DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.10.012




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Not Just Inauguration Protesters: Medics, Observers and a Journalist Face 50 Years in Prison

The prosecution somehow saw medics’ bringing of first aid gear to the January 20 protest as being “prepared for war” and “aiding and abetting the riot.”

Final arguments are underway today in Washington, D.C., in a case that could shape the future of free speech and the right to protest in the United States: the first trial of the nearly 200 people arrested during President Donald Trump’s inauguration. As demonstrators, journalists and observers gathered in Northwest D.C. after the inauguration on January 20, some separated from the group and vandalized nearby businesses and vehicles. Police officers then swept hundreds of people in the vicinity into a blockaded corner in a process known as “kettling,” where they carried out mass arrests of everyone in the area. The first so-called J20 trial could go to a jury as early as today, and involves six people, including one journalist, Alexei Wood, a freelance photojournalist. The defendants face multiple felony and misdemeanor charges, including multiple counts of destruction of property. Evidence against the defendants has been scant. We get an update from Jude Ortiz, a member of the organizing crew of Defend J20 and the Mass Defense Committee chair for the National Lawyers Guild. He’s been in court throughout the first J20 trial.


This is a rush transcript. Copy may not be in its final form.

AMY GOODMAN: We begin today’s show with an update on a case that could shape the future of free speech and the right to protest in the United States. Final arguments are underway today in Washington, D.C., for the first trial of the nearly 200 people arrested during President Trump’s inauguration. As demonstrators, journalists and observers gathered in Northwest D.C. after the inauguration, on January 20th, some separated from the group and broke windows of nearby businesses and damaged cars. Police officers then swept hundreds of people in the vicinity into a blockaded corner in a process known as “kettling,” where they carried out mass arrests of everyone in the area.

The first so-called J20 trial could go to a jury as early as today, and involves six people, including one journalist, Alexei Wood, a freelance photojournalist. The defendants face multiple felony and misdemeanor charges, including multiple counts of destruction of property. Evidence against the defendants has been scant from the moment of their arrest. Earlier this week, Superior Court Judge Lynn Leibovitz threw out the felony charge of inciting a riot for the six people on trial now, meaning they now face up to 50 years in prison instead of up to 60.

This comes as police conduct on Inauguration Day has come under scrutiny by the ACLU, and the chief detective in this case is a police union official who tweeted that police showed great restraint during the inauguration.

Well, for more, we go to Washington, D.C. We’re joined by Jude Ortiz, a member of the organizing crew of Defend J20 and the Mass Defense Committee chair for National Lawyers Guild. He’s been in court throughout this first J20 trial.

Jude, welcome back to Democracy Now! Explain what has happened so far and the significance of the judge throwing out the charge.

JUDE ORTIZ: Right. Thank you so much for having me on again.

So, since I was on last, the prosecutor has rested their entire case with all the so-called evidence against the defendants, and then the defense has also put on their witnesses to—like as part of their right to have witnesses come and testify on their behalf. That process for the defense was very short, about only about half a day in court. And then, now it’s into the like final arguments stage. So the prosecutors had their argument first, and then each of the defense attorneys for the defendants are putting on their arguments. This morning at 9:30, there will be the final two defendants, will have their closing arguments, and then the prosecutor will do a rebuttal. Then there will be some more kind of like legal housekeeping to do, before it goes to the jury.

So, the judge throwing out the inciting a riot charge was a huge development in the case. It’s something that after the prosecutor rests their case, defense attorneys will almost always file a motion to have the charges dismissed. In D.C., it’s called a motion for judgment of acquittal. And it’s a formality, for the most part. It’s rarely ever successful. So it was really notable that one of the most significant charges against the defendants, not only in this trial bloc, but also in the case as a whole, was found, in this case, at least, to have no evidentiary basis at all. So, basically, the judge said that the state did not meet the burden of proof, and that charge therefore was dismissed, and the jury will not have to deliberate on that one at all.

AMY GOODMAN: So, but explain what that means, because we’re talking about numerous cases that will follow this one. Does this judge preside over all of these cases if the inciting to riot remains in the other cases?

JUDE ORTIZ: At this point, the judge is assigned to all the other cases. It’s important to note that there’s another case that is scheduled for this coming Monday for seven defendants, but that one probably will not be happening on Monday, because the jury will still be deliberating on this case. So, it’s unclear when the second trial will begin. It’s looking like it might be in January. And then, on March 5th of next year, all the way through October of next year, are all the remaining trials. And starting in May, there’s a trial scheduled for every single week. But the judge has indicated that her rotation, her job assignment, is switching from criminal court to family court as of January 2nd, so there will be a new judge or judges beginning in 2018.

AMY GOODMAN: Why do you see this case as so significant for free speech in the United States?

JUDE ORTIZ: So, on January 20th, the police rounded up everyone who they can get a hold of in this vicinity. The police commander who testified at the beginning of the trial, or towards the beginning of trial, was very clear, both in his testimony as well as recordings from the police radio, that they were interested in the protest—it was an anti-fascist, anti-capitalist march—and they responded to that kind of preemptively by having around a hundred riot cops and their like lieutenants and sergeants, whatnot, there at Logan Circle, where the protest was scheduled to depart from and begin. And that commander said that rather than doing what is typical in D.C., where they do rolling road closures to facilitate the exercise of free speech, instead they showed up with numerous vans full of riot police, and then they followed the march and began, pretty much immediately, to start to crack down on the march. That commander repeatedly used the word “anarchist” to describe everybody who was there. And that officer—or, that commander and other officers talked about everybody being like one group with nefarious intent.

So, from the outset, because of the alleged politics of the march and of the people who were there, the police responded in this very heavy-handed manner that culminated in them rounding everybody up and mass-arresting people. And the prosecutor has continued that by going forward with these charges against everyone. So, when that is the kind of method of operations, for the police going hand in hand with the prosecutor, that sends a very chilling message to anybody who’s interested in going out in the streets and voicing dissent, especially dissent to Trump, dissent to the rise of fascism, dissent to white supremacy, heteropatriarchy, like all these other like very devastating systems of oppression.

AMY GOODMAN: Jude, Assistant U.S. Attorney Qureshi, the second-ranking prosecutor, who made closing arguments, said, in those arguments, a street medic was guilty by being present, and asked, “What do you need a medic with gauze for? She was aiding and abetting the riot. That was her role,” Qureshi said. Respond to that.

JUDE ORTIZ: So, that’s an entirely ludicrous claim. Medics have been at protests across the country for decades to be able to provide first aid type of care to people who are injured in various ways. One of the most notable ways people get injured at protests, as your listeners and viewers know, is by actions from the police. On January 20th, there was a massive amount of pepper spray deployed by police on people, sometimes directly in the face, sometimes on the side or from behind. And we saw this in trial through body cam—body-worn camera videos. There’s also a lot of body-worn camera videos of police knocking people down from behind with their batons. One of the officers who testified ran his bike directly into a protester. And so, there’s all these different ways that the people who are out there like in the streets can get injured very easily. There’s also the elements to deal with. In January, it was very cold, for the January 20th inauguration protest. Lots of different reasons why you’d have medics there in order to like render aid to people who get injured.

That prosecutor said that the supplies that were there kind of show that the medics, in general, were kind of like prepared for war, which is a—it’s as insulting as it is ludicrous to say that people who were out there in the streets were prepared for war, especially when you saw the Department of Homeland Security helicopter video showing all the police operations that were happening there on Inauguration Day, how the police took this like paramilitary approach, that was also supported by the National Guard in order to like corral people and use chemical and projectile weapons against people. So, if there was any kind of warlike conditions, that was coming from the police and from the government, and not from people who were there to render aid.

AMY GOODMAN: I want to ask you about some of the videos submitted as evidence in this case by federal prosecutors. This includes video by the Canadian YouTuber Lauren Southern, who the Southern Poverty Law Center describes as, quote, “tiptoe[ing] at the precipice of outright white nationalism.” Southern was there on January 20th, Inauguration Day, and was kettled during the protest, but was allowed to leave without being arrested. Prosecutors also submitted video evidence from the right-wing militia group Oath Keepers, who infiltrated protest planning meetings and secretly recorded them. Prosecutors also presented video from the discredited far-right group Project Veritas, just one day after The Washington Post reported Project Veritas had tried to dupe them with a false story of sexual misconduct by a woman undercover pretending to be a victim of Roy Moore. Go into this and why this matters, Jude Ortiz.

JUDE ORTIZ: It’s appalling to see so much of the state’s—the prosecution’s case and their so-called like evidence coming from overtly far-right sources. So, the Project Veritas video that you mention, it did come out in the courtroom as like a main piece of evidence, exactly like one day after that story broke. And one would think that that would kind of discredit or like cast into doubt like the kind of truthfulness or the usefulness of that evidence. The prosecutor and the police officer who was testifying about it gave no indication that the source of it was at all even a question mark or some cause of concern. The state, through various witnesses, the detectives who like testified about the video and whatnot, admitted that they did no kind of forensic investigation or examination of the tape to make sure that it wasn’t doctored in some way. Project Veritas, of course, is notorious for doctoring in the editing of their videos. And they were presented to the jury as one of their main pieces of evidence, and especially with the idea of conspiracy.

And so, when so much of the so-called evidence against these defendants and the defendants at large depends on this kind of so-called like investigative work of far-right actors, it really shows how the state itself, but with their police investigators, undercover cops infiltrating political protest planning meetings, the undercover and plainclothes police who were present on the march and like in the streets that day—all of these different like state actors were not able to find the evidence that would substantiate the charges the prosecutor has been so ferociously pursuing, and so they have to supplement that and really kind of create the evidentiary base through drawing on the far right.

AMY GOODMAN: I wanted to ask you about the main detective working full time on the J20 case, Greggory Pemberton. On Inauguration Day, January 20th, he tweeted D.C. police officers used a, quote, “inspiring amount of restraint” and showed “professionalism.” Last November, he also tweeted about, quote, “disingenuous ‘activists’ who peddle lies and falsehood.” During the J20 trial, defense lawyers played this clip of an interview Pemberton gave to the far-right media outlet One America News Network, praising President Trump.

GREGGORY PEMBERTON: He certainly has a message of law and order, and he really is appealing to a lot of police officers. … Police officers want to hear that someone is going to come in and not allow this divisive, vitriolic rhetoric of this false narrative that all police officers are inherently criminal racists that are out here committing crimes against the citizens, and that they’re going to come in and put a stop to that.

AMY GOODMAN: Jude Ortiz, as we wrap up, can you respond to the significance of his involvement with the case and what he’s saying here?

JUDE ORTIZ: Yes. The detective, Pemberton, has claimed that he has looked through hundreds of hours of videos, hundreds of times, since January 21st. It’s been his full-time job, his only assignment. He was able, through that review, to present various compilation boards of photographs, as well as videos and PowerPoints, to give to the jury for their deliberations, that claims to have documentation of the location of each of the defendants all throughout the march, and presenting this as if that’s something that, like, being present like in the streets is a sign of guilt and is evidence of guilt of all these charges.

So it’s a tremendous amount of work that is like put in for these like very politically motivated way—or, reasons. And those political motivations are pretty clear when you look at his Twitter feed, with all of the far-right and pro-Trump things that he has promoted, like through retweets and through likes and through his own comments on Twitter. He claimed on the stand that that was only in the kind of exercise of his position as a board member of the police union. But whether that’s true or whether it’s his own personal opinions, those opinions that are put forward are very much in favor of like right-wing causes and very much against liberal or progressive, like radical-left causes and movements. And he’s even done very inflammatory and insulting things, like saying “black lies matter”—L-I-E-S—instead of “Black Lives Matter,” and discounting that entire movement, that has been so prominent in responding to police violence and brutality across the country.

AMY GOODMAN: Finally, shortly after winning the 2016 presidential election, Donald Trump tweeted his thoughts on dissent. He tweeted, “Nobody should be allowed to burn the American flag–if they do, there must be consequences–perhaps loss of citizenship or year in jail!” Your final comment, Jude Ortiz?

JUDE ORTIZ: I think comments like that show the kind of concerted effort and nature of repression of social movements in the United States. I want to clarify that: I mean like left social movements. The right social movements, that have become more prominent and public under Trump, have been facilitated by the state. We’re seeing that in places like Charlottesville. We’re seeing that in places like St. Louis and all across the country. People need to recognize like how things are shifting, and be ready to be out in resistance, to dissent and to not be scared away. And this case is a very important part of that.

AMY GOODMAN: Jude Ortiz, I want to thank you for being with us, member of the organizing crew of Defend J20 and the Mass Defense Committee chair for the National Lawyers Guild. He’s been in court throughout this first J20 trial. And we’ll keep you updated on this and other trials as they go on.


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Rupert Murdoch Seems to Have Forgotten That He Fired Bill O’Reilly

The only sexual-harassment problem they’ve had at Fox News was Roger Ailes, he said.

In light of the news that the Walt Disney Company had reached a deal to acquire most of 21st Century Fox, executive co-chairman Rupert Murdoch spoke to Sky News TV about the move and other business matters at the empire.

But when the topic of sexual harassment allegations came up and whether they affected the network, Murdoch called the accusations “nonsense.”

“It’s all nonsense,” he said. “There was a problem with our chief executive, over the year, isolated incidents.” Former Fox News CEO Roger Ailes stepped down in 2016 after over 20 women accused him of sexual harassment, and News Corp paid $45 million in settlements related to those allegations. Upon his departure, Ailes was awarded a $40 million exit package.

Murdoch told Sky News TV, “As soon as we investigated he was out of the place in hours — well three or four days. And there has been nothing else since then.”

Since then, since Ailes left News Corp, there has actually been quite a bit else.

The network’s biggest star, Bill O’Reilly was fired in April following numerous sexual harassment allegations and after the New York Times discovered that Fox had paid at least $13 million in settlements over complaints made against him. The network also terminated host Eric Bolling in September, after Huff Post reported that Bolling had sent unsolicited pictures of his genitalia to at least three female colleagues. Host Chris Payne was also suspended this summer after allegations of sexual harassment. He was later reinstated.

Murdoch claims the accusations were “largely political because we are conservative. The liberals are going down the drain. NBC is in deep trouble.”

The media industry, like Hollywood, the food industry and politics, has come under scrutiny for a culture of predation by men in power and systematic sexual misconduct. From NBC’s Matt Lauer, to CBS’s Charlie Rose, to PBS’s Tavis Smily, allegations of sexual harassment or assault have not been confined to conservatives. But to ignore how pervasive allegations specifically at Fox News have been is a very selective understanding of this current moment.

“There are really bad cases and people should be moved aside,” Murdoch said. “There are other things — which probably amount to a bit of flirting.” According to Sky News, the 86-year-old said that he did not believe sexual misconduct allegations had “affected investor sentiment towards his businesses.”



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Test Your SQL Basics – Part_2

Conversion Functions Questions

1. What will be the outcome of the following query?
SELECT ROUND(144.23,-1) FROM dual;
  1. 140
  2. 144
  3. 150
  4. 100

2. Which of the following commands is used to count the number of rows and non-NULL values in Oracle database?
  2. INSTR
  4. COUNT

3. Which of the following statements are true regarding the single row functions?
  1. They accept only a single argument.
  2. They can be nested only to two levels.
  3. Arguments can only be column values or constants.
  4. They can return a data type value different from the one that is referenced.

4. Which of the following type of single-row functions cannot be incorporated in Oracle DB?
  1. Character
  2. Numeric
  3. Conversion
  4. None of the above

5. Which of the following is true for the statement given as under.
NVL2 (arg1, arg2, arg3)
  1. Arg2 and Arg3 can have any data type
  2. Arg1 cannot have the LONG data type
  3. Oracle will convert the data type of expr2 according to Arg1
  4. If Arg2 is a NUMBER, then Oracle determines the numeric precedence, implicitly converts the other argument to that datatype, and returns that datatype.

6. What is true about the NULLIF function in Oracle DB?
  1. NULLIF(expr1,expr2) will return expr2 if the two expressions are NOT NULL.
  2. NULLIF(expr1,expr2) will return 0 if the two expressions are NULL.
  3. NULLIF(expr1,expr2) will return NULL if the two expressions are equal.
  4. Expr1 can be NULL in NULLIF(expr1, expr2)

7. Which of the following is not a property of functions?
  1. Perform calculations on data
  2. Convert column data types
  3. Modify individual data items
  4. None of the above

8. What is the most appropriate about single row functions?
  1. They return no value
  2. They return one result per row and operate on all the rows of a table.
  3. They return one result per row with input arguments
  4. They return one result per set of rows and operate on multiple rows.

9. What is the number of arguments Single Row functions accept?
  1. 0
  2. Only 1
  3. Only 2
  4. 1 or more than 1

10. Which of the following is an exception to the return value of a DATE type single-row function?
  1. TO_DATE

11. What is true about the CONCAT function in Oracle DB?
  1. It can have only characters as input.
  2. It can have only 2 input parameters.
  3. It can have 2 or more input parameters
  4. It joins values by putting a white space in between the concatenated strings by default.

12. What is true about the SUBSTR function in Oracle DB?
  1. It extracts a string of determined length
  2. It shows the length of a string as a numeric value
  3. It finds the numeric position of a named character
  4. It trims characters from one (or both) sides from a character string

1-A,   2-D,   3-D,   4-D,  5-D,   6-C,   7-D,   8-B,   9-D,  10-C,   11-B,  12-A

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Using the Group Functions Questions

1. Which of the following is NOT a GROUP BY function?
  1. MAX
  2. MIN
  3. NVL
  4. AVG

2. What are the appropriate data types accepted by GROUP BY functions?
  1. Nested Tables
  3. CLOB
  4. DATE

3. A table T_COUNT has 12 number values as 1, 2, 3, 32, 1, 1, null, 24, 12, null, 32, null. Predict the output of the below query.
SELECT COUNT (ALL num) FROM t_count;
  1. 12
  2. 6
  3. 9
  4. Throws exception because COUNT function doesn’t works with NULL values

4. Which of the following is NOT a GROUP BY extensions in SQL?
  3. CUBE

5. Which of the following statements is true about the group functions?
  1. The MIN function can be used only with numeric data.
  2. The MAX function can be used only with date values.
  3. The AVG function can be used only with numeric data.
  4. The SUM function canít be part of a nested function.

6. Which of the following functions is used to calculate the total value stored in a specified column?
  1. COUNT
  2. ADD
  3. TOTAL
  4. SUM

7. Which of the following functions can be used to include NULL values in calculations?
  1. SUM
  2. NVL
  3. MAX
  4. MIN

8. Determine the correct order of execution of following clauses in a SELECT statement.
  1. 2-3-4-5-1-6
  2. 1-2-3-4-5-6
  3. 6-5-4-3-2-1
  4. 5-4-2-3-1-6

9. What is true of using group functions on columns that contain NULL values?
  1. Group functions on columns ignore NULL values.
  2. Group functions on columns returning dates include NULL values.
  3. Group functions on columns returning numbers include NULL values.
  4. Group functions on columns cannot be accurately used on columns that contain NULL values.

10. Which of the following statements are true?
  1. AVG and SUM can be used only with numeric data types.
  2. STDDEV and VARIANCE can be used only with numeric data types.
  3. MAX can be used with LONG data type.
  4. MAX and MIN cannot be used with LOB or LONG data types.

11. Up to how many levels, the group functions can be nested?
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. No limits

12. Which of the following are true about the CUBE extension of GROUP BY?
  1. Enables performing multiple GROUP BY clauses with a single query.
  2. Performs aggregations for all possible combinations of columns included.
  3. Performs increasing levels of cumulative subtotals, based on the provided column list.
  4. None of the above

1-C,   2-B,   3-C,   4-A,  5-C,   6-D,   7-B,   8-A,   9-A,  10-(A,B,D),   11-B,  12-B

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Get Data from Multiple Tables Questions

1.Which of the following is not related to a Relational Database?
  1. Selection
  2. Projection
  3. Joining
  4. None of the above

2.Which of following will be used to join rows with other tables if the column values fall in a range defined by inequality operators?
  1. Equijoin
  2. Simple join
  3. Non-equijoin
  4. None of the above

3.What is true about a cartesian join of two tables in Oracle DB?
  1. It must be avoided as it is costly and non optimized
  2. It is formed when every row from one table is joined with all rows in the second table
  3. Both A and B
  4. None of the above

4.What is the main condition for using joins between a source table and a target table in Oracle DB for getting a non-cartesian product result?
  1. There is no condition
  2. At least one of the columns in both the tables should be common.
  3. The names of the columns in both the joining tables should be the same for using joins
  4. None of the above

5.What is true about Natural joins in Oracle DB?
  1. The column names of the source and the target tables should be identical
  2. If the column names of the source and the target tables are not same, Oracle implicitly does the needful
  3. NATURAL JOINS, USING and ON are the keywords associated with Natural Joins
  4. All of the above

6. The database designer has named the key (unique) columns from two tables differently.While joining these tables, which among the following will be the best practice?
  1. JOIN..ON
  2. Either NATURAL JOIN or JOIN…ON clauses
  3. Both A and B
  4. None of the above

7. What are Cartesian Joins also known as in Oracle DB?
  1. Equi-join
  2. Anti-join
  3. Cross-Join
  4. None of the above

8.Which of the following is used to avoid the ambiguous column problem in Oracle DB?
  1. ;
  2. ,
  3. .
  4. /

9.How many tables can be joined by using the JOINS in Oracle DB?
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 255
  4. No limit

10.What is true about Non-equijoins in Oracle DB?
  1. They join based on the keyword NON-EQUI JOIN
  2. They are used using the JOIN..ON clause with “=” sign
  3. The results are obtained when the result of the inequality mentioned evaluates to true.
  4. None of the above

11.On which of the following conditions is a row returned when an EQUI-JOIN is used to join tables?
  1. The result of the inequality match operation is true
  2. The result of the inequality match operation is 0
  3. The result of the inequality match operation is 1
  4. The result of the inequality match operation is false

12.In what scenarios can we use Self-Joins ideally in Oracle DB?
  1. When we need to find the duplicate records in a table
  2. When we need to obtain NULL values from a table
  3. When we need to display a column of a table twice
  4. When we need to display hierarchy of relevant entities

1-D,   2-C,   3-B,   4-B,  5-C,   6-A,   7-C,   8-C,   9-D,  10-C,   11-A,  12-D

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Subqueries to Solve Queries Questions

1. Which of the following are the types of sub-queries?
  1. Ordered sub-queries
  2. Grouped sub-queries
  3. Single row sub-queries
  4. None of the above

2.Which of the following clause is mandatorily used in a sub-query?
  2. WHERE

3.In which of the following clauses can a sub-query be used?
  2. WHERE
  3. FROM
  4. All of the above

4.Which of the following single-row operators can be used for writing a sub-query?
  1. >=
  2. <
  3. =
  4. All of the above

5.What among the following is true about sub-queries?
  1. Sub-queries can be written on either side of a comparison operator
  2. Parenthesis is not mandatory for sub-queries
  3. Single-row sub-queries can use multi-row operators but vice versa is not possible
  4. All of the above

6.What among the following is true about single-row sub-queries?
  1. They return only one row
  2. They use single-row operators
  3. Both A and B
  4. None of the above

7.Which of the following are valid multi row operators used for sub-queries?
  1. <=
  2. ANY >=
  3. !=
  4. >=

8.What does the ANY operator evaluates to in the above query?
  1. TRUE
  2. FALSE
  3. NULL
  4. 0

9.What can be said about the < ANY operator in the query given above?
  1. It gives the maximum value of salary
  2. It gives the minimum value of salary
  3. It means it gives the values that are lesser than the highest
  4. None of the above

10.What will be the outcome of the above query (the option A in the question above), if the < ALL is replaced with the >ALL?
  1. It will execute successfully giving the same result.
  2. It will throw an ORA error
  3. It will execute successfully but give the employees’ details who have salaries lesser than all the employees with job_id ‘FI_ACCOUNTANT’.
  4. None of the above

11.What is true about sub-queries in general?
  1. Sub-queries have to be executed separately from the main queries
  2. Sub-queries can be executed at the will of the user, they are not related to the main query execution
  3. Sub-queries are equal to two sequential queries where the results of inner query are used by the main query
  4. All of the above

12. What should be the best practice to follow when we know what values we need to pass on to the main query in Oracle queries?
  1. Using GROUP BY
  2. Using sub-queries
  3. Using HAVING
  4. None of the above

13.What is the maximum number of nesting level allowed in an Inline View type sub-query?
  1. 255
  2. 300
  3. 216
  4. Unlimited

1-C,   2-A,   3-D,   4-D,  5-A,   6-C,   7-B,   8-A,   9-C,  10-C,   11-C,  12-D,   13-D

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Using the Set Operators Questions

1.Which SET operator does the following figure indicate?
  1. UNION
  4. MINUS

2.Which SET operator does the following figure indicate?
  1. UNION
  4. MINUS

3.What is true about the UNION ALL operator?
  1. It returns rows from the combined queries along with NULL values
  2. It returns rows for the combined queries after eliminating duplicates
  3. It returns rows for the combined queries along with duplicate values
  4. It returns rows for the combined queries ignoring the NULL values

4.What is the precedence of the set operators UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT and MINUS?
  4. Equal precedence

5.What is the order of evaluation of set operators?
  1. Left to Right
  2. Right to Left
  3. Random Evaluation
  4. Top to Bottom

6.What among the following is true about SET operators?
  1. SET operators cannot be used in sub-queries
  2. SET operators can only be used in the WHERE clause
  3. ORDER BY can be used for all queries combined by a SET operator
  4. SET operators can be used in sub-queries

7.What is the best way to change the precedence of SET operators given the fact that they have equal precedence?
  1. The order of usage of the SET operators can be changed to change the precedence
  2. The equal precedence cannot be changed
  3. Parenthesis can be used to change the precedence
  4. None of the above

8.What will happen if the SELECT list of the compound queries returns both a VARCHAR2 and a NUMBER data type result?
  1. Oracle will convert them implicitly and return a VARCHAR2 data type result
  2. Oracle will convert them implicitly and return a NUMBER data type result
  3. An ORA error is thrown
  4. None of the above

9.What is true about the UNION operator?
  1. It eliminates the duplicate values ignoring NULL values
  2. It returns duplicate values ignoring NULL values
  3. It returns duplicate values including NULL values
  4. It eliminates duplicate values and does not ignore NULL values

10.What is true about the INTERSECT operator?
  1. The number of columns and data types of the columns in the component queries should be the same
  2. The names of the columns and data types of the columns in the component queries should be the same
  3. Both A and B
  4. None of the above

11.What can be said about the result set if the order of the intersected tables is altered when using INTERSECT?
  1. The result is altered
  2. The result remains the same
  3. The sorting changes on alteration
  4. None of the above

1-A,   2-C,   3-C,   4-D,  5-(A,D),   6-D,   7-C,   8-C,   9-D,  10-A,  11-B

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